Nanoparticle Phagocytic Uptake Testing
Macrophages are key cellular participants in host inflammatory and immunological biological responses. They are believed to be among the first and primary cell types that process nanoparticles in terms of initiating nanoparticle clearance, nanoparticle biodistribution and other aspects. Therefore, the study of how nanoparticles interact with professional macrophage is important and necessary. The understanding of the molecular interactions between nanoparticles and specific phagocytes phenotypes as well as the ability to design nanoparticles for selectively targeting or evading these macrophage populations are vital in nanomedicine research. Creative Biogene is a forward-looking research institute as well as a leading custom service provider in the field of mRNA delivery system development. In order to meet the growing demand for new mRNA delivery systems, we strive to offer global customers with nanoparticle phagocytic uptake testing services. Our service takes full advantage of the diversity of the mononuclear phagocyte system, hoping to greatly facilitate design and production of new, more efficacious and safer nanoparticles.
Why choose the macrophage?
Nanomedicine is a burgeoning industry. The diverse forms and designs of nanoparticles have shown substantial clinical potential, due to they may eventually direct specific internal trafficking, cell recognition, as well as processing pathways. The innate immune system of the body plays a vital role in regulating the host's defense against foreign pathogens. A full understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system is of great significance for clinical translation. Macrophages derived from the monocytic lineage precursor cells are one of the crucial members in both the innate and adaptive immune responses systems. As the body's main scavenger cell, macrophages have the unique ability to engulf foreign particulates (such as nanoparticles), stressed cells, cellular debris, to maintain cellular homeostasis and immune surveillance. Moreover, they can act as linkers, playing important roles in adaptive immunity via antigen processing and presentation (such as T lymphocyte priming). Macrophages possess heterogeneity and plasticity property. For instance, many subsets of macrophage populations have the specialized and polarized functional ability to regulate tissue inflammation and phagocytic clearance. In function, these macrophage phenotypes are distinct in the aspects of their membrane expression levels of important phagocytosis receptors, the ability to address inflammation, scavenge debris and promote tissue repair. Given the integral role of macrophages within the immune cascade, a complete understanding of how nanoparticles interact with the monocyte-macrophage system, especially with distinct polarized macrophage phenotypes, is important to the clinical translation of nanomedicine. More importantly, the ability to design nanoparticles for selectively targeting or evading these macrophage populations can promote the development of tailored nanomedicine platforms that are safe and immune tolerant.
(Left) Cartoon depicting examples of the body's resident tissue macrophages responsible for nanoparticle tissue site clearance and inflammatory activation; (Right) Images of silica nanoparticles internalized within macrophages in the liver and spleen. (Gustafson, H. H.,et al., 2015)
Nanoparticle phagocytic uptake testing in Creative Biogene
Based on a mouse primary culture, we have established a mature platform to help customers study their nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. To learn about nanoparticles exposure risks, it is critical to explore how nanoparticles are recognized, internalized, trafficked and distributed within diverse types of host macrophages. We can offer a series of macrophage types for customers to choose, including the bone marrow derived macrophages, liver (Kupfer cells), spleen, or lung (alveolar macrophages). With years of experience accumulation, we deeply understand the importance of nanoparticles' physical and chemical properties as well as the choice of specific cell populations with distinctive phenotypic functions in testing. Based on the advanced equipment and experienced experts, we are committed to providing the optimal strategy to meet the specific needs of our global clients.
If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more information. We are glad to serve you!
- Gustafson, H. H., et al. (2015). "Nanoparticle uptake: the phagocyte problem." Nano today, 10(4), 487-510.
- Jain, A. K., & Thareja, S. (2019). "In vitro and in vivo characterization of pharmaceutical nanocarriers used for drug delivery." Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology, 47(1), 524-539.