Nanoparticle Immunogenicity and Toxicity Testing
With the development of nanotechnology in the past decades, the design and characterization of nanoparticles have become an important field of research. Especially, in the field of nanomedicine, where nanoscale materials are being developed for drug delivery applications. In addition to the physical properties of nanoparticles, such as architecture, size, shape, surface charge, the immunological properties of nanoparticles are another critical parameter. Nanoparticles can promote or suppress the immune system and potentially lead to severe toxicity. Moreover, the immunological properties of nanoparticles can be specifically regulated to adapt the specific applications. For example, nanoparticles can be designed to stimulate the immune system as the component of vaccine, or designed to suppress immunity as for anti-inflammatory. Creative Biogene is your reliable and professional partner in the field of mRNA delivery system development. We offer a series of nanoparticle characterization services, including nanoparticle immunogenicity and toxicity testing. We are committed to serving customers as orientation, to providing professional and enthusiastic service.
The immunological properties of nanoparticles
Nanoparticles can promote or suppress the immune system and potentially lead to severe toxicity. Although most engineered nanomaterials are not immunogenic per se. The composition of nanoparticles, such as size, charge, and surface chemistry, have a profound influence on the immune response and toxicity induced by nanoparticles. When the nanoparticles are delivered to the body, the components of nanoparticles can be recognized by the immune system as foreign materials, following by initiation of a complex immunological process. Usually, nanoparticles absorb the blood proteins on its surface. The type and quantity of the absorbed proteins are important, since they indicate the fate of nanoparticles in vivo. The nanoparticles can induce signaling processes of toxicity or immunogenicity through binding on the cell surface. The immune system can be activated to release cytokines, which can regulate local and systemic inflammatory as well as hypersensitivity reactions. Among the pathways, the endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling is well-characterized, especially with polymeric nanoparticles utilized for nucleic acids delivery.
Service offering in Creative Biogene
The immunological property of nanoparticles is an outstanding parameter with important implications for the application of mRNA therapy. Based on our well-established animal model platform and improved technologies, we can fast measure and evaluate the potential immune response to the nanoparticles. We usually use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the nanoparticle-specific antibody in the mouse serum, and the presence of nanoparticle-specific antibody is further confirmed by western blot. Since the cytokine secretion induced by various nanomaterials is considered a reason for immunotoxicity manifesting. We also provide a series of cell cytokines and its concentration measurement service through mouse inflammation panel kit and flow cytometer. A wide range of cytokines include IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, IFN-β, and so on. The specific implementation strategies are for different administration routes and target tissue/cell types.
We can analyze the potential acute and chronic toxicities of nanoparticles in terms of different administration routes and dosage experimental schemes. With advanced instruments and experienced experts, we can conduct a series of experimental testing to evaluate toxicity of nanoparticles, such as blood morphology and biochemistry analysis, cell DNA integrity analysis, as well as histological tissue analysis. We offer a board spectrum of measurement parameters for our customers to choose.
Creative Biogene promises to provide high-quality and low-cost nanoparticle characterization service for global clients. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more information. We are glad to cooperate with you!
- Ilinskaya, A. N., & Dobrovolskaia, M. A. (2016). "Understanding the immunogenicity and antigenicity of nanomaterials: Past, present and future." Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 299, 70-77.
- Karabasz, A., et al. (2019). "In vivo studies on pharmacokinetics, toxicity and immunogenicity of polyelectrolyte Nanocapsules functionalized with two different polymers: poly-L-glutamic acid or PEG." International journal of nanomedicine, 14, 9587.